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A browser can be described as a software application, a typical HTTP client that helps the internet visitor to interpret the HTML documents and display the content from web servers or in file systems. Today there are a variety of internet browsers available. The prominent browsers available for personal computers include Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox Opera Netscape and so on. A browser is the most commonly used kind of user agent. The largest networked collection of linked documents is known as the World Wide Web.
Web browsers connect to web servers using HTTP which is also known as hyper text transfer protocol in full to fetch webpages. The most commonly used HTTP is HTTP/1.1.inorder for a user to access a webpage he/she is assisted by a URL which in full is uniform resource locator.URL is taken as an address, and it starts with http: for HTTP access. Many browsers support a lot of URL together with their protocols, such as ftp: which stands for (file transfer protocol), gopher: which also stands for Gopher, and https: which means HTTPS which is an SSL encryption of HTTP).
The generally accepted format of a particular web page mostly is HTML which stands for hyper-text markup language which is identified in HTTP protocol via a MIME format type. Most browser support other technology contexts apart from HTML, these include formats such as JPEG, PNG and not forgetting the GIF images, and they can support more via use of the plugins.
In the beginning web browsers supported only a very simple version of HTML. The increased growth of web browsers led to the development of HTML into a more complex avatars. Modern web browser support standards-based HTML and XHTML which should display in the same way across all browsers. Web sites today are designed using WYSIWYG HTML generation programs such as Macromedia Dreamweaver or Microsoft FrontPage. There are continuous development activities in developing standards, in particular with XHTML and CSS which stands for cascading style sheets, used for page layout. Some popular browsers include additional components to support Usenet news, IRC (Internet relay chat), and e-mail. Protocols supported may include NNTP (network news transfer protocol), SMTP (simple mail transfer protocol), IMAP (Internet message access protocol), and POP (post office protocol).
Different browsers have uniqueness built in because of the very features that they provide and very functions that they support. Modern browsers and web pages tend to utilize many features and techniques that did not exist in the early days of the web. The following is a list of some of the most notable features:
- HTTP and HTTPS
- HTML, XMLand XHTML
- GIF, PNGJPEG and SVG
- Cascading Style Sheets
- Digital certificates
- Plugins like Macromedia Flash and Quick Time.
Other features generally include:
- Tabbed browsing
- Spatial navigation
- Caret navigation
- Screen reader
- Pop-up Blocker
- Ad filtering
Web Browsers have today established themselves as a most user-friendly and essential technology tool for surfing the internet. Web browsers help the visitors to the ethereal world of the web to view contents from different file formats, interact with other websites, and incorporate appropriate technology to view/download/upload multi-media content and streaming multi-media. Web browsers today provide functionalities like blocking of unwanted pop-up advertisements, spywares and phishing attempts. They provide the convenience of tabbed browsing and come with advanced features like auto-fill and password and download manager